Site Map
Electrical Failure 
Innovative Projects

CV - Full
Published Papers 
& Articles

Dr Antony Anderson C.Eng FIEE/FIET

Books - Published Papers  - Patents - Articles

Anderson, A.F. Chapter 2: Development History 
Electronic Control of Reluctance Machines, Edited by T.J.E. Miller
Newnes Power Engineering Series 2001 ISBN 0 7506 50737

Published Papers
Anderson, A. F.

Intermittent Electrical Contact  Resistance as a Contributory Factor in the Loss of Automobile Speed Control Functional Integrity  IEEE ACCESS March 19 2014

Abstract: For three decades, sudden acceleration (SA) incidents have been reported, where automobiles  accelerate without warning. These incidents are often diagnosed as No Fault Found (NFF). Investigators who follow the line of diagnostic reasoning from the 1989 NHTSA SA report  tend to conclude that SAs are caused by  driver pedal error.  This paper reviews the diagnostic process  in the NHTSA report and finds (1) that it assumes that an intermittent electronic malfunction should be reproducible either through in-vehicle or laboratory bench tests without saying why and (2) that the consequence of this assumption, for which there appears to be no forensic precedent, is to re-categorize  possible intermittent electronic failures as  proven to be non-electronic. Showing that the supposedly inescapable conclusions of the NHTSA report concerning electronic malfunctions are without foundation opens the way for the paper to discuss  electronic intermittency as a potential factor in SA incidents. It then reports a simple practical experiment that shows  how mechanically-induced electrical contact intermittencies can  generate false speed signals  that an automobile speed control system may accept as true and that do not  trigger any diagnostic fault codes. Since the generation of accurate speed signals is essential for the proper functioning of a number of other automobile safety-critical control systems, the apparent ease with which false speed signals can be generated by vibration of a poor electrical contact is obviously a matter of general concern. Various  ways of  reducing the likelihood of SAs are discussed, including electrical contact improvements to reduce the likelihood of generating false speed signals, improved battery maintenance, and the incorporation of an independent fail-safe that reduces engine power in an emergency,  such as a kill switch.  This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information:
DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2014.2313296, IEEE Access

Anderson, A. F.
Reliability in Electromagnetic Systems: The role of electrical contact resistance in maintaining automobile speed control system integrity. IET Colloquium on Reliability in Electromagnetic Systems, 14-25 May 2007, Paris, France.
Abstract: Electromagnetic systems depend upon the integrity of electrical connections. An intermittent speed sensor connection is shown to generate a false speed signal that may allow an automobile speed control system to engage at low speed and cause a sudden acceleration. Preventive measures are discussed. The current approach to controlling uncommanded sudden accelerations seems to rely upon the driver braking against full engine power to bring the vehicle to a halt. More effective and safer control would be achieved by cutting off the fuel supply the moment that an uncommanded wide open throttle condition was detected, thereby preventing the sudden acceleration. PDF Copies obtainable by clicking here or from the author by
e-mail :
Anderson, A. F.
Digital Speedometer Fluctuating Readings Diagnostic Engineering  Sept/Oct 2006 pages 901-903
Abstract: An explanation of how intermittency in speed sensor connections in the presence of vibration may generate a false speed signal that the electronic speedometer will accept as valid.  Electrical contacts have the potential for causing all manner of electronic mayhem beyond the example given here and should never be taken for granted.

Tavner, P.J.,
Anderson A. F.

Core faults in large generators
IEE Proceedings - Electrical Power Applications - November 2005 - Vol 152. Issue 6. p 1427-1439
 Abstract: A core fault is a failure in the laminated core of a large electrical machine. Such faults are relatively rare but when they occur, the value of the machine and its importance mean that the investigation of the failure assumes a high priority. On many occasions the details of such failures assume major commercial significance, therefore failure investigations have, of necessity, to be handled in a confidential manner, touching as they do on the design, manufacture, operation and insurance of large electrical plant. There has therefore been no published literature on core faults. However, the scientific principles of the mechanisms at work have been studied in considerable detail and papers published on those principles in the international literature. This paper brings together that literature and those scientific principles, giving details of the underlying design, constructional and operational factors which affect these faults. New evidence is presented of the underlying factors which allow core faults to initiate and grow. The paper will allow engineers to analyse such faults, draw rational conclusions on the causes for each occasion and devise suitable repair/rebuild strategies applicable to that situation. Copies obtainable from the IEE by subscription. Alternatively e-mail Antony Anderson  and ask for a pdf file
Anderson, A. F. A chance encounter with William Sturgeon
Electronics and Power February 1986 pp 129 - 131
What would the 18th century pioneers think  of today's technology? An exclusive interview with William Sturgeon (1783-1850) the inventor of the electromagnet. Download PDF File

Anderson, A. F. William Henley : Imagination without discipline
Electronics and Power August 1985 pp 593 - 597
William Henley (1813-1882), electrical instrument maker and cable manufacturer, inventor and entrepreneur was a man of immense energy and self confidence and played an important role in the early development of the electrical engineering industry. We can learn a great deal from him: especially how not to run an engineering company.
Anderson, A. F. William Henley, pioneer electrical instrument maker and cable manufacturer, 1813 to 1882
IEE Proceedings, Vol 132, Pt. A, No 4, July 1985 pp 249 - 261
Abstract: William Henley provides a case history of a pioneer manufacturer of electrical instruments and equipment, who expanded from instrument making into the production and laying of submarine cables. At one time he employed 2000 men and owned three cable laying ships. By 1874 he had expanded his firm beyond what one could manage and, when the recession came, he failed. He had lived frugally, but instead of using some of the profits to build up reserves, he spent heavily on expansion and borrowed heavily. Henley is an object lesson to all inventor-entrepreneurs: watch your cash flow and be prepared to delegate. His personal management style did not adapt to the growth of the business and to the need for sound administration. The firm had to be reconstituted without him, and then W.T. Henley's Telegraph Works Ltd. recovered and enjoyed subsequent success. [0ffprints of paper still available on request from AFA]
Le Ny,  R.
Guile, A .E.,
Anderson, A. F. 
Mechanism of "Meandering" Breakdown of  Insulation in an Electrical Machine. Proceedings of First International Conference on   Conduction and Breakdown in Solid Dielectrics. Université Paul Sabatier    TOULOUSE -France July 4-8, 1983 Paper H9 p. 395-398.
Abstract: In a previous paper, Anderson and Guile described an unusual type of interlaminar insulation breakdown found in the stator core of an electrical machine, which can lead to increased losses. The damage revealed by scanning electron microscopy was compared with that caused by arc discharges, but there were features of worm-like metallic filaments which could not be explained. In the present paper, comparison is made with atmospheric corrosion phenomenon of electrochemical origin, which can occur if the relative humidity lies within a critical range. In this "filoform" corrosion in metals covered by protective films, wormlike filamentary corrosion can begin from such points as inclusions or scattered hygroscopic salts, with the head of the filament supplied with water from the surrounding air by osmotic action due to the high concentration of dissolved ferrous ions. The heterogenious oxygen diffusion in the head  produces a differential oxygen concentration cell which leads to the development of filogorm corrosion. The active head with its blue-green colour characteristic of ferrous ions is reflected if it strikes an inactive tail of another filament (which appears as red-brown due to ferric oxide). Since growing filaments cannot cross inactive tails, they can become trapped and die as available space diminishes. SEM photographs of metallic filaments on insulated laminations from a machine will be shown, and it will be seen that, despite the differences in gas and humidity involved in the two cases, there are significant similarities. Discussion will be given of the similarities and differences between the filoform corrosion and the interlaminar breakdown, so as to attempt to improve understanding of the processes involved.

Platt, R., Kerr, L.C.,
Anderson, A. F.
Measuring Flux and Interlaminar Voltage in  Turbine Generator End Regions. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines - Design and    Applications IEE London 13-15 July 1982 p. 201-205.
Abstract: This paper describes the general approach to the measurement of flux and interlaminar voltages in turbogenerator end regions.Construction and locations of typical search coils are shown. Some selected results of measurements of interlaminar voltages in the end region are given which show typical values of 5v peak-to-peak at 50 Hz. The induced voltage in a back-of-core search coil at the core end is shown to rise sharply under short circuit conditions, whereas in a similar coil well away from the core end the voltage collapses. As far as is known, this paper records the first occasion on which attempts were made to measure transient back-of-core flux leakage phenomena on  a large electrical under sudden short circuit conditions.  Download PDF File
Anderson, A. F.,
Bedford, T.,
Craddock, A. F
Transient leakage flux in small  universal motors.
IEE PROC., Vol 128, Pt. B, No 5, September 1981 p. 254-254
Abstract: This communication reports an investigation into the transient back-of-core flux that arises in a small universal motor. A substantial leakage flux has been shown to exist under starting conditions which is caused by excess field ampere turns saturating the core and forcing the flux into the back of core region. Download PDF File 550 kB

Bailey, M.R.,
Bumby, J.R.,
Hassall, B.I.,
Anderson, A.F.
Magnetic fields and inductances of helical windings with  120 degree phasebands Electrical Machines and Electromechanics 6: 323-335 Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. 1981.
Abstract: In the development of superconducting a.c. generators the essential air-cored nature of the generator, and the larte power output per unit length, suggests that conventional armature windings may not necessarily be the most suitable.  One possible alternative is the helical armature winding and has been proposed both as a means of obtaining a uniformly supported armature structure and for generating at transmission line voltages. This paper discusses the peculiarities of helical windings, and in particular those with 60 degree and 120 degree phase-bands. Magnetic field and indusctance measurements are made on a three phase model with a phase spread of 120 degrees and compared with calculated values using a previously published theory. Computed and measured values of synchronous inductance agree to within 1%.
Anderson, A. F. Contribution to discussion on Variable-speed switched-reluctance motor systems before  IEE Power Divison Professional Groups p1 and P6 8th December 1980 IEE Proc., Vol 128, Pt B, No 5 September 1981 p 265.
Anderson, A, F.,
Bumby, J. R.,
Hassall, B. I.
Analysis of helical armature windings with particular reference to superconducting a.c. generators IEE Proc., Vol 127, Pt c, No 3, May 1980 pp 129 - 144
Abstract: An unusual form of helical polyphase armature winding is described in which conductors lie on a helix of constant radius as they pass from one end of the machine to the other. There are no end windings. An analysis of the winding is performed which allows analytical expression for the flux densities and machine reactances to be found. Measured and calculated values of synchronous reactance agree to within 2%. Some of the more unusual properties of helical windings are discussed. See Helical Winding  Download PDF File of Paper 
Anderson A. F., Steel, J.G, Reece, A. J. B., Carpenter C.J., Preston. T. W.,  Phemister, T.G., Smith, R., Hammond, P., Jackson, R. J., Tavner, P.J., Penman, J.,   Stoll, R.L., Lorch, H.O., Howe, D.  Contributions to 'Discussion on Interlamination    voltages in large Turbine Generators and Influence of winding design on the axial flux  in laminated-stator cores and Examination of flux distribution in segmented stator  cores'  IEE PROC, Vol 127, Pt. C. No2 March 1980 p 114-115. 
Anderson, A. F.,
Guile, A. E.

An unusual type of interlaminar breakdown found in an electrical machine. Sixth International Conference on 'Gas Discharges and their  Applications' Heriot-Watt University: 8-11 September 1980.
Abstract: The stator cores of large electrical machinews are made up of segmented laminations separated by layers of varnish to minimise eddy currents and core losses. From time to time the insulation is subjected to appreciable voltage stress, e.g. during start up of an induction motor or during system disturbances for a generator. These stresses are highest nearest the ends of the core where leakage fluxes are highest. A localised breakdown of insulation between two adjacent layers of laminations may then occur and, if this becomes permanent, it will  cause increased eddy currents and higher losses at the breakdown site. Hence insulation quality is important in machines and thus understanding of the mechanism  of interlaminar breakdown is necessary. However, because of the number of laminations in a machine, direct monitoring of interlaminar voltages is difficult. Some progress has been made recently by laser welding interlaminar probes on a 500 MW machine and a 120 MW machine, but the main sources of information still remains the detailed examination of individual laminations on machines. It was during such an examination that examples of interlaminar breakdown were found which differed from any previously known to the authors, and this paper reports the unusual features with a view to stimulating discussion. A description of a 'meandering' interlaminar breakdown follows. Download PDF file of this paper

 See also  Le Ny, Guile & Anderson
Anderson, A. F.

Sparks from Steam : The story of the Armstrong hydroelectric generator. Electronics and Power January 1978 pp 50 - 53.
Abstract: The mysterious explosion of three large oil tankers in 1969 would not appear to have connection with the peculiar happenings in an isolated Northumberland  Colliery in 1940. However, there might have been no explosions had the dangers of the electrification of wet steam and high pressure water been better appreciated by those responsible for the cleaning out of large oil tanks.  A description of the investigation carried out at Seghill Colliery in the autumn of 1840 by William Armstrong, later Lord Armstrong into static electrical discharge resulting from a steam leak in a stationery boiler. A description of Armstrong's "hydro-electric" generator follows , of which  multi-jet versions were built, one for the London Polytechnic  Institution and one for export to the USA.  Other effects of the electrification of steam are described.  Download PDF file
Anderson, A. F. Unusual Electric Machines. Electronics and Power 14 November 1974 pp 979 - 983 [ based on a lecture given to the IEE North Eastern Graduate and Student Section 29th April 1974]
Anderson, A. F. Some early experiments in applied electromagnetism : Robert Davidson - Electromagnetician  Extraordinary - Pioneer of Electric Traction. Lecture to the Royal Scottish Society of Arts 10 March 1975 [ Also presented at IEE History of Electrical Engineering Conference 1975]
Appleton, A.D.,
Anderson, A. F., 

Ross, J. S. H.
A discussion on large superconducting A.C. Generators Paper A 3 pages 1 - 12. Date & Place unknown
Appleton, A. D.,
Anderson A. F.
A review of the critical aspects of superconducting generators. Paper M-2 Applied Superconductivity Conference Annapolis 1972.
Abstract: This paper reviews the development of super­conducting generators undertaken by IRD on behalf of C.A. Parsons and Company Ltd.  An outline design of a machine concept is presented with a discussion of the more critical development problems.  An account is given of the manner in which performance is influenced by machine geo­metry, in particular by inter-winding coupling factors on substransient reactance. The principal mechanisms causing machine losses are reviewed and the techniques used for their prediction and minimisation are outlined. PDF File available 2.2 Mb.
Cruickshank, A. J. O.,
Anderson, A. F.,
Menzies, R. W.
Stability of reluctance motors from freely accelerating torque speed curves Transactions Paper T 72 049-0 IEEE Winter Meeting NY Jan 30-Feb 4 1972.
Abstract: The limits of stability in reluctance machines are known to be narrow, especially in machines of improved design with high reactance ratio. These stability limits can usefully be investigated with the aid of computed and measured freely accelerating torque speed curves. The machine equations are developed using a frame of reference fixed with respect to the rotor.  Machine performance is then simulated on an analogue computer. A large number of freely accelerating torque speed curves are then generated for different values of machine parameters. The model is designed to cope simply with different motors and is based on a per unit system. All parameters can be simply varied, so that their effect on performance can be demonstrated. The torque speed curves that result can be said to be characteristic of a machine with given parameters and contain information about starting torque, transient torque dips, synchronisation ability and stability.  Since changes in parameters cause marked changes in shape of the freely accelerating torque speed curve, it is possible, bu matching the results obtained from a practical test with those from a computer study, to determine where the total performance of the machine lies with respect to the optimum and to decide what changes are necessary to improve design. Download PDF File
IEEE Abstract
Cruickshank, A. J. O.,
Anderson, A. F.,
Menzies, R. W.
Theory and performance of reluctance motors with axially laminated anisotropic rotors. Proc IEE, Vol 118, No 7, July 1971 pp 887 - 894
Abstract: A theoretical and practical study is given of  reluctance motors having rotors constructed from axially anisotropic cores, as proposed in an earlier paper. The experimental work has led to the development of a practical motor of high performance, capable of a large maximum output without detriment to overall performance or stability. In addition, the broad field of reluctance motors and their features are reviewed, and an attempt is made to integrate developments. A full bibliography is provided. [53 references from 1923 to 1970]
Download PDF File
Cruickshank, A. J. O.,
Anderson, A. F.
Stability of Reluctance Machines. [Contribution to discussion of paper by Lawrenson, Bowes and Mathur Proc IEE, 1971 118 (6), pp. 777-783] Proc IEE, Vol 118, No 9, September 1971 pp 1289-1290
Cruickshank, A. J. O.,
Anderson, A. F.
Axially-laminated reluctance synchronous motors. Proceedings of EM70 conference, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, paper 40, pp 40-1 to 40-4.
Cruickshank, A. J. O.,
Anderson, A. F.
Transient Performance of Reluctance Synchronous Motors. Proceedings Fifth Universities Power Engineering Conference, Swansea, January 1970
Cruickshank, A. J. O.,
Anderson, A. F.
Contribution to discussion of papers 5248 P, 5270P and 5540P on Reluctance Motors. Proc IEE, Vol 115, No 9, September 1968 page 1285 
Anderson, A. F. A New Type of Reluctance Motor. IEE Students' Quarterly Journal September 1968 pages 19 - 24
Cruickshank, A. J. O.,
Anderson, A. F.,
Menzies R.W
A New Development in Reluctance Motors.  St Andrews University Engineers Year Book 1966 pages 21-26
Cruickshank, A. J. O., 
Menzies R.W.,
Anderson, A. F
Axially Laminated Anisotropic Rotors for reluctance Motors. Proc. IEE, Vol 113, No 12, December 1966 pages 2058 - 2060
Abstract: An interim report is given on work on reluctance motors presently being carried out in the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of St Andrews, Queen's College, Dundee. A description is given of a new type of rotor, in which strip-wound axial laminations of magnetically anisotropic material replace conventional rotor stampings. 10 references 1923-1966.
Anderson, A.F.,
Cruickshank, A.J.O. 
Development of the reluctance motor. Electronics and Power, 1966, 12, p 48

Prov. Spec. 
1 576 619 Anderson, A.F., Anderson, R.
05.05.1977 08.10.1980 Improvements in and relating to D.C. supplies [ Onboard power  supply for rotating mahines]
1 508 793 Henderson, Anderson, Hickling, Ralph, Young
01.04.1975 26.04.1978 Improvements in and relating to dynamo electric machines [Generator stator construction]
1 482 411
30.07.1974 10.08.1977 Rotary machine having a cooling system for circulation of liquid coolant to the rotor
1 455 818 Anderson     31.10.1972
Improvements in and relating to Dynamo Electric Machines
US Pat 3,761,752

01.05.1972 25.09.1973
Dynamoelectric machine winding support [Heocal stator winding for AC Machines]
1 395 152 Ross, Anderson MacNab
01.05.1972 21.05.1975 Alternating Current Dynamo-Electric Machine Windings [Helical stator winding for AC machines]
1 183 630 Cruickshank, Anderson  

11.03.1970 Rotor for Reluctance Machine
1 114 562 Cruickshank, Anderson

28.05.1968 Rotor for Dynamo-Electric Machine [Axially laminated rotor]
1 114 561 Cruickshank, Anderson

22.05.1968 Dynamo-Electric Machine [A thyristor driven switched field reluctance motor]


  • Review: Laws of Men and Laws of Nature by Tal Golan, Harvard University Press - On the history of scientific testimony (New Scientist 2004)
  • A Website for Colditz : IEE ENGINEERING COMMUNITIES:Computing and Control: The Computer Forum:
    [IEE Engineering Management Journal August 2001 pages 185-192 & Computing and Control December 2001]
  • Making a success out of failure : Engineering Management Review April 2001 pages 50-52
  • Obituary: DR. RICHARD HORE : Keeping Electricity supplies going over vast distances around the world : The Times Sept 6th 2000
  • Lessons from disaster (New Scientist 5 June 1993) :Safety and the short term memory.
  • A  Museum of Failure (New Scientist  8 June 1991) : Owning up to our own mistakes.
  • Spare a thought for the Ohm (New Scientist 7 May 1987) : Resistance isn't all bad.
  • Brambleware (Guardian 29 Dec 1983) : For those who are baffled by computers.


© Antony Anderson 2000 last updated  24th June 2014